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By contrast, increased gene flow and migration into and across the east coast of Ireland from neighbouring Britain has led to less distinct eastern Irish groups. In another striking pattern, many Northern Irish genetic samples clustered with southern Scottish and northern English samples.

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This may be due to several historical events, such as the major economic migration from Ireland in the 19th and 20th centuries, the settlement of Scottish farmers in Ireland following the 16th century Elizabethan conquest of Ireland, and the suspected Irish colonisation of Scotland in the 6th and 7th centuries. Researchers have found 23 distinct Irish genetic clusters in Ireland and Britain. These are most distinct in western Ireland, but less pronounced in the east.

In the stock image above, the many different territories making up the British Isles, including Ireland and the UK, can be seen. Their latest research has uncovered a previously hidden DNA landscape, shaped through geography and historical migrations. The findings, published in the journal PLOS Genetics, could also shed fresh light on genetic diseases - and lead to better treatments. In both the UK and Ireland, for example, prevalence of multiple sclerosis increases the further north you go.

And compared with the rest of Europe, the Irish have higher rates of cystic fibrosis, celiac disease, and galactosemia, a serious metabolic disorder that prevents the breakdown of sugars in dairy, legumes and organ meats. Geneticist Dr Ross Byrne, of Trinity College Dublin, said: 'This subtle genetic structure within such a small country has implications for medical genetic association studies.

Being able to link genetic information to geographic origins helps medical researchers design studies that consider how and why a person, or a group of people, may be affected by certain illnesses. It could be useful to know your DNA has been influenced by a unique genetic subgroup from one part of Ulster. Considering that something like 20 to 30 per cent of North Americans can claim Irish ancestry, this could have huge repercussions across the world.

If you need an organ transplant or skin graft, it could make a difference in how well your body accepts the tissue.

Kings and Queens of England & Britain - Historic UK

The more genetically different you are from the donor, the shorter the life of the transplant. Rejections are lower when the recipient's genome and the donor's have fewer differences. Pictured is a replica of a Viking boat towed on the river Thames past London's Houses of Parliament on April 15, Professor Russell McLaughlin added: 'The long and complex history of population dynamics in Ireland has left an indelible mark on the genomes of modern inhabitants of the island.

The study follows research by the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland and the Genealogical Society of Ireland, which found genetic evidence of Viking settlement for the first time.

The History of the Vikings in England (AD. 793 - AD. 1066)

That team found there were at least 10 distinct genetic clusters across the country, roughly aligned with the ancient provinces or kingdoms of Ireland. They collected DNA samples from Irish people whose eight great-grandparents were born within 31 miles 50km of each other in Ireland.


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Viking Kings of Britain and Ireland: The Dynasty of Ivarr to A.D. 1014

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