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Risk Group 3 RG3 agents are associated with serious or lethal human disease for which preventive or therapeutic interventions may be available. Risk Group 4 RG4 agents are likely to cause serious or lethal human disease for which preventive or therapeutic interventions are not usually available. WHO Basis for Risk Grouping: Each country classifies the agents in that country by risk group based on pathogenicity of the organism, modes of transmission and host range of the organism.

These may be influenced by existing levels of immunity, density and movement of host population presence of appropriate vectors and standards of environmental hygiene. WHO Risk Group 1 no or low individual and community risk. A microorganism that is unlikely to cause human disease or animal disease. WHO Risk Group 2 moderate individual risk, low community risk. A pathogen that can cause human or animal disease but is unlikely to be a serious hazard to laboratory workers, the community, livestock or the environment.

Staphylococci in Human Disease, 2nd Edition

Laboratory exposures may cause serious infection, but effective treatment and preventative measures are available and the risk of spread of infection is limited. WHO Risk Group 3 high individual risk, low community risk. A pathogen that usually causes serious human or animal disease but does not ordinarily spread from one infected individual to another.

Effective treatment and preventive measures are available.


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WHO Risk Group 4 high individual and community risk. A pathogen that usually causes serious human or animal disease and that can be readily transmitted from one individual to another, directly or indirectly. Effective treatment and preventive measures are not usually available. The following classification has been drawn up for microorganisms that are infectious for humans and animals for Australia and New Zealand by modification of the WHO guidelines and is based on the pathogenicity of the agent, the mode of transmission and host range of the agent, the availability of effective preventive measures, and the availability of effective treatment:.

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Risk Group 1 low individual and community risk — a microorganism that is unlikely to cause human or animal disease. Risk Group 2 moderate individual risk, limited community risk — a microorganism that is unlikely to be a significant risk to laboratory workers, the community, livestock, or the environment; laboratory exposures may cause infections, but effective treatment and preventive measures are available, and the risk of spread is limited.

Risk Group 3 high individual risk, limited to moderate community risk — a microorganism that usually causes serious human or animal disease and may present a significant risk to laboratory workers. It could present a limited to moderate risk if spread in the community or the environment, but there are usually effective preventive measures or treatment available.

Risk Group 4 high individual and community risk — a microorganism that usually produces life-threatening human or animal disease, represents a significant risk to laboratory workers and may be readily transmissible from one individual to another. Class of risk 1: micro-organisms known as nonpathogenic for the man, the animal, the plant and not-harmful for the environment or presenting a negligible risk for the man and the environment at the laboratory scale.

This class includes, beside organisms whose harmlessness was proven, strains which can be allergens and opportunistic pathogens. Class of risk 2: micro-organisms that can cause human disease and might be a hazard for directly exposed persons; they are unlikely to spread to the community. There is usually effective prophylaxis or treatment available. Class of risk 3: micro-organisms that can cause severe human disease and present a serious hazard for directly exposed persons.

They may present a risk of spreading to the community. Class of risk 4: micro-organisms that cause severe human disease and are a serious hazard for directly exposed persons. They may present a high risk of spreading to the community.

There is usually no effective prophylaxis or treatment available. Class of risk 2: micro-organisms that can cause disease in animals and present, at different levels, one or other of the following characteristics: limited geographical importance, no or weak interspecific transmission, no vectors or carriers. The economic and or veterinary significance is limited.

Class of risk 3: micro-organisms that can cause serious disease or epizootics in animals. Interspecific diffusion can be important. Some of these pathogenic agents require the installation of sanitary regulations for species indexed by the authorities of each country concerned. Class of risk 4: micro-organisms that cause extremely serious panzotics or epizootics in animals with a very high mortality rate or dramatic economic consequences in the affected farmingregions.

Either no medical prophylaxis is available or only one exclusive sanitary prophylaxis is possible or obligatory. Class of risk 2: micro-organisms that can cause plant disease, but that does not present an increased risk of epidemic in the event of accidental dissemination in the Belgian environment. They are ubiquitous pathogens for whom prophylactic and therapeutic means exist.

Nonindigenous or exotic phytopathogen micro-organisms which cannot survive in the Belgian environment because of absence of hosts or plant-targets, or favorable climatic conditions also belong to the class of risk 2. Class of risk 3: micro-organisms that can cause in the plant a disease of economic or environmental importance for which treatments are non-existent, difficult to apply, or expensive.

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The accidental dissemination of these micro-organisms can increase the risks of local epidemics. Exotic stocks of micro-organisms usually present in the Belgian environment and not listed as quarantine micro-organisms also belong to this class of risk. Risk Group 1 low individual and community risk A microorganism, nucleic acid, or protein that is either a not capable of causing human or animal disease; or b capable of causing human or animal disease, but unlikely to do so.

Those capable of causing disease are considered pathogens that pose a low risk to the health of individuals or animals, and a low risk to public health and the animal population. RG1 pathogens can be opportunistic and may pose a threat to immunocompromised individuals. Due to the low risk to public health and animal population associated with RG1 material, there are no physical or operational requirements for handling them.

Nonetheless, due care should be exercised and safe work practices e. Risk Group 2 moderate individual risk, low community risk A pathogen or toxin that poses a moderate risk to the health of individuals or animals, and a low risk to public health and the animal population. These pathogens are able to cause serious disease in a human or animal but are unlikely to do so. Effective treatment and preventive measures are available and the risk of spread of diseases caused by these pathogens is low.

Risk Group 3 high individual risk, low community risk A pathogen that poses a high risk to the health of individuals or animals, and a low risk to public health. These pathogens are likely to cause serious disease in a human or animal. Effective treatment and preventive measures are usually available and the risk of spread of disease caused by these pathogens is low for the public.

The risk of spread to the animal population, however, can range from low to high depending on the pathogen. Risk Group 4 high individual risk, high community risk A pathogen that poses a high risk to the health of individuals or animals and a high risk to public health. These pathogens are likely to cause serious disease in a human or animal, which can often lead to death. Effective treatment and preventive measures are not usually available and the risk of spread of disease caused by these pathogens is high for the public.

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The risk of spread of disease to the animal population, however, ranges from low to high, depending on the pathogen. Group 2 biological agent means one that can cause human disease and might be a hazard to workers; it is unlikely to spread to the community; there is usually effective prophylaxis or treatment available. Group 3 biological agent means one that can cause severe human disease and present a serious hazard to workers; it may present a risk of spreading to the community, but there is usually effective prophylaxis or treatment available.

Group 4 biological agent means one that causes severe human disease and is a serious hazard to workers; it may present a high risk of spreading to the community; there is usually no effective prophylaxis or treatment available. Article 2.

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USA - Method for the treatment of staphylococcal disease - Google Patents

Definitions; Article J Clin Microbiol. Hamell NL. Boyce J. Application of molecular techniques in the study of Staphylococcus aureus clonal evolution-A review. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. Clinical and molecular characteristics of infections with CO2-Dependant small-colony variants of Staphylococcus aureus. J Clin Micobiol. Enhanced production of exopolisaccharide matrix and biofilm by a menadione auxotrofic Staphylococcus aureus small-colony variant.

J Med Microbiol. Multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis of Staphylococcus aureus: comparison with Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis and spa-Typing. PLos ONE.